A byproduct of a blockchain’s community members making a change to the underlying protocols and programs of the network, or the rules and regulations of the network itself. This creates a new blockchain that is connected to the original one, but this part of the blockchain will head off in a different direction than the original part, now that the protocols have changed. This is done in order to advance and improve blockchain security, and add new features to the blockchain, which will allow it to function better.